Gaines rejected both of these options, and, employing the services of Thurgood Marshall and the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, he decided to sue the state in order to attend the University of Missouri's law school. The case, known as Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) (full name Oliver Brown, et al. Brown claimed that the segregation deprived minority children of equal protection under the 14 th Amendment. Hoping that it would not have to admit Sweat to the "white" law school if a "black" school already existed, elsewhere on the University's campus, the state hastily set up an underfunded "black" law school. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in an 8 to 1 vote that the “separate but equal” argument presented in the Plessy v. Ferguson case. These laws came to be known as Jim Crow laws. However, it required him to sit apart from the rest of his class, eat at a separate time and table from white students, etc. Disappointed that the University of Maryland School of Law was rejecting black applicants solely because of their race, beginning in 1933 Thurgood Marshall (who was himself rejected from this law school because of its racial acceptance policies) decided to challenge this practice in the Maryland court system. While most wanted to reverse Plessy and declare segregation in public schools to be unconstitutional, they had various reasons for doing so. Houston, together with Thurgood Marshall, devised a strategy to attack Jim Crow laws by striking at them where they were perhaps weakest—in the field of education. Plessy, contending that the Louisiana law separating blacks from whites on trains violated the "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, decided to fight his arrest in court. This site is maintained by the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts on behalf of the Federal Judiciary. In 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified and finally put an end to slavery. Finally, the Fifteenth Amendment (1870) further strengthened the legal rights of newly freed slaves by prohibiting states from denying anyone the right to vote due to race. Once again, Thurgood Marshall and the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund handled these cases. The organization lobbied to legislative bodies to create anti-lynching laws and eradicate injustice in its first 20 years. The case that came to be known as Brown v. Board of Education was actually the name given to five separate cases that were heard by the U.S. Supreme Court concerning the issue of segregation in public schools. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 is established to protect the civil rights of African-Americans. Biography of Homer Plessy, Civil Rights Activist, M.S.Ed, Secondary Education, St. John's University, M.F.A., Creative Writing, City College of New York. If one race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them upon the same plane.". McLaurin, stating that these actions were both unusual and resulting in adverse effects on his academic pursuits, sued to put an end to these practices. Learn about Civil Rights hero Rosa Parks and four other women, also forced off city buses, and how their courage led to a federal court decision to strike down segregation on buses. Equity vs. Encouraged by their victory in Gaines' case, the NAACP continued to attack legally sanctioned racial discrimination in higher education. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Plessy and similar cases, many people continued to press for the abolition of Jim Crow and other racially discriminatory laws. Despite these Amendments, African Americans were often treated differently than whites in many parts of the country, especially in the South. Following is the case brief for Brown v. Board of Education, United States Supreme Court, (1954). The six-member majority stated that since a "black" law school did not currently exist in the State of Missouri, the "equal protection clause" required the state to provide, within its boundaries, a legal education for Gaines. The purpose of this site is to provide information from and about the Judicial Branch of the U.S. Government. v. Varsity Brands, Inc. Oliver Brown was denied admission into a white school, As a representative of a class action suit, Brown filed a claim alleging that laws permitting, After the District Court upheld segregation using. Headed by Charles Hamilton Houston, the fund created a strategy of dismantling segregation in education. The Supreme Court held that segregation had a profound and detrimental effect on education and segregation deprived minority children of equal protection under the law. bring all of the Justices to agree to support a unanimous decision declaring segregation in public schools unconstitutional. Roadways to the Federal Bench: Who Me? For about the first 20 years of its existence, it tried to persuade Congress and other legislative bodies to enact laws that would protect African Americans from lynchings and other racist actions. The amendment grants the privilege of citizenship to African-Americans. McLaurin employed Thurgood Marshall and the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund to argue his case, a case which eventually went to the U.S. Supreme Court. This was permitted under laws which allowed segregation based on race. A Bankruptcy Judge? Although it would be many years before all segregated school systems were to be desegregated, Brown and Brown II (as the Courts plan for how to desegregate schools came to be called) were responsible for getting the process underway. Moreover, Marshall argued that the disparities between the "white" and "black" law schools were so great that the only remedy would be to allow students like Murray to attend the University's law school. The Court Reversed the District Court’s decision. By combining these cases under one umbrella shows the national significance. 5 Key Events in Affirmative Action History.
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