micrococcus luteus citrate test

micrococcus luteus citrate test
October 28, 2020

"Genome sequence of the Fleming strain of Micrococcus luteus, a simple free-living actinobacterium", "Role of GC-biased mutation pressure on synonymous codon choice in Micrococcus luteus, a bacterium with a high genomic GC-content", "Reclassification of ATCC 9341 from Microccus luteus to Kocuria rhizophila", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Micrococcus_luteus&oldid=977682105, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 September 2020, at 09:19. only. Once the culture was deemed pure enough, I inoculated a slant tube. Blood, 101(6), 2388-2392. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-07-2319, Young, M., Artsatbanov, V., Beller, H. R., Chandra, G., Chater, K. F., Dover, L. G., . Payne, Jeanette H. MRCPCH; Welch, Jennifer C. MRCPath; Vora, Ajay J. FRCPath. 1 Nevertheless they have been documented to be causative organisms in cases of bacteremia, endocarditis, ventriculitis, peritonitis, pneumonia, endophthalmitis, keratolysis and septic arthritis. The Micrococcus genus is known to be found on dust particles, in water, on skin and skin glands in vertebrates, and some species can be found in milk. Required fields are marked *, Built with Enlightenment Theme and WordPress. The PYRA, PAL, LAP, RIB, ARA, MAN, and TRE tests came up as positive. Reduction of O2 produces superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide, or the hydroxyl radical. The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults. Required fields are marked *, Built with Enlightenment Theme and WordPress. I extracted the DNA using the PowerSoil DNA kit (manufactured by Qiagen) following manufacturer instructions. Although some, like Micrococcus antarcticus, are cold-adapted, and have been found living in Antarctica and in marine environments. I grew my isolated in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) for a week to prepare for DNA extraction. Applied microbiology 30.3 (1975): 381-395. This matches up with the PATRIC metagenome binning which also showed some impurities (Figure 1). A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Micrococcus, Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Actinobacteria (class); Actinobacteridae; Actinomycetales; Micrococcineae; Micrococcaceae. In  Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. British Association of Dermatologists. Table 2: Graph of the genomic reads by taxonomic level using Korona. While every effort is made to ensure details M. luteus is unique in its ability to absorb UV radiation. The fluid thioglycallate test showed that the bacteria was an obligate aerobe because the growth was concentrated at the top of the tube in the pink region. Micrococcus species, members of the family Micrococcaceae, are usually regarded as contaminants from skin and mucous membranes. "Micrococcus folliculitis in HIV-1 disease. The catalase test also indicated that the microbe does not have catalase, despite the metagenomic binning test suggesting it. I performed a Gram stain test to identify if the bacterium was gram negative or positive, as described in the Lab 4 handout. They can even survive in conditions that have very little of even no oxygen, using glycolysis and alternative electron acceptors to create ATP. Those are extremely toxic because they are powerful oxidizing agents and destroy cellular constituents very rapidly. If I were to continue researching this isolate, I would redo the API 20 E test strip with a fresh, active culture to ensure that it can reduce nitrate, and also the oxidase test to ensure that it does have cytochrome c oxidase present, which it should according to Public Health England. (2002). The confidence on that reading is decently confident, evidenced by the blue coloring. They are generally strict aerobes and can generally reduce nitrate. Sulfur reduction test, Indole production, Motility (SIM) deeps ... Citrate (IMViC tests) ... Micrococcus luteus (left) Alcaligenes faecalis (middle) • Reduction of nitrate to nitrite to be used as a final electron acceptor/Nitrate reductase. The API 20 Strep test I used came up with no conclusive results. Micrococcus species are oxidase-positive, which can be used to distinguish them from other bacteria like most Staphylococcus species, which are generally oxidase-negative.Micrococcus species can also be differentiated from staphylococcus species by the Taxo A Bacitracin disk test. Coronavirus (COVID-19): Culture Collections continues to support Public Health England (, Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) - NCTC freezed-dried bacterial products, Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) - NCTC bacterial DNA, Catalase : +,Gelatinase : -,Lecithinase / alpha : -, Citrate : -,Soluble starch hydrolysis : -, axis: curved : Yes,sides: irregular : Yes,ends: rounded : Yes. When looking back after culturing the isolate, these hypothesies were supported by several of the tests, and served as a good tool to steer me towards what the isolate may be. Most Micrococcus infections are discovered through process of elimination (all other bacterial, fungal, etc. When performing tests for physiological traits, the results were limited. It has pigments that absorb long wave UV radiation, between 350-475 nanometers. Kloos, Wesley E., and Margaret S. Musselwhite. The Culture Collections represent deposits of cultures from Recently, this organism was recognized as an opportunistic pathogen and has been implicated in recurrent bacteremia, septic shock, septic arthritis, endocarditis, meningitis, intracranial suppuration, and cavitating pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients. Another test I did to identify my isolate was DNA analysis, described in lab handouts 5 and 7. It is mostly Actinobacteria, but some Proteobacteria and Firmicules are in the sample as well. For example, M. luteus and M. lylae are 40-50% genetically different. To identify our isolate after obtaining the pure culture, we performed many different tests. Your email address will not be published. Coagulase •Results: such as the requirement for a material transfer agreement to be M. varians is the second most frequently isolated species of micrococcus after Micrococcus luteus (Kloos & Musselwhite, 1975). But, they do not fermente on this agar giving a negative test. Citrate test for the use of citrate as energy source; ... Micrococcus luteus is another gram-positive coccus that also is catalase positive. The EMB plate is also selective for gram-negative bacteria which is probably why the bacteria didn’t grow on it. Micrococcus luteus uses the amino acids and does not grow in the butt of the slant. Bacillus megaterium fermented sugars but didn't grow in the anaerobic area of the butt. The API 20 E test strip results revealed nothing about what the isolate uses as an electron acceptor because every result was negative, and that it likely only uses glucose as an energy and carbon source and oxygen as its electron acceptor. Micrococcus antarcticus; M. luteus; M. lylae; M. roseus; M. agilis; M. kristinae; M.sedentarius; M. halobius; M. sp. I also did a fluid thioglycolate test to determine the bacteria’s oxygen class. Muralytic activity of Micrococcus luteus rpf and its relationship to physiological activity in promoting bacterial growth and resuscitation. information. The antibiotic resistance test showed only minor resistance to the antibiotic Oxacillin, which is likely due to a chance inheritance in the population or complete chance because of the weak strength. They are generally strict aerobes and can generally reduce nitrate. Read our dispatch and service update here: Find out more, Conditions of Supply of Microbial Pathogens: Safety. Krona chart of microbe shows bacterial classes thought to be present in the sample. The oxidase test results suggest that the microbe does not contain oxidase, despite what the metagenome binning test showed. Micrococcus luteus are Gram-positive, to Gram-variable, motile -non motile, that are 0.5 to 3.5 micrometers in diameter and usually arranged in tetrads or irregular clusters. In conclusion, some of my results were inconclusive and conflicting. Journal of Bacteriology, 192(3), 841-860. doi:10.1128/jb.01254-09, Pereira, J. H., Goh, E., Keasling, J. D., Beller, H. R., & Adams, P. D. (2012). Credit Account orders accepted or email / fax your order to us. completed by the potential recipient prior to supply. I suspect that the API 20E test strip results were negated by having used an inactive colony, as the fluid thyoglycate test failed as well. 69, No. About half of the strains of M. luteus were found to carry plasmids 1 to 100MDa in size. MadSci Network: What are the effects of Micrococcus luteus on the human body? Results: Regarding the gram stain test, my isolate was gram variable, I ensured that the strain was fresh so that the age of the culture was the same throughout the test. The MacConkey agar is selective for gram-negative which is why my microbe didn’t show much growth on it, and because it didn’t change colors it means it didn’t ferment the lactose. 1 Nevertheless they have been documented to be causative organisms in cases of bacteremia, endocarditis, ventriculitis, peritonitis, pneumonia, endophthalmitis, keratolysis and septic arthritis. Another set of tests that I performed were physiological tests, including testing for oxygen class with fluid thyoglycate, checking for catalase using hydrogen peroxide, checking for cytochrome c oxidase using oxidase test strips, and using an API 20 E test strip to test for various different physiological traits such as Sulphur reduction, which had 20 different tests. Positive test result: growth in citrate medium or growth with colour change to blue in Simmon's citrate tube. I used an oxidase test strip and water to determine if cytochrome C oxidase was present, and performed a catalase test to determine if catalase was present. They are fairly small as well, usually about a millimeter in diameter and of a normal height. The colonies are a pale, translucent yellow, and are shiny when looked at in the light. Simmons citrate agar tests the ability of organisms to utilize citrate as a carbon source. I also hypothesize that it will be an aerobic organism, given that I found it in a well aerated environment and it has survived until I cultured it. Some cultures have additional special release conditions Staphylococcus aureus. 1999). M. luteus can be found in many places such as the human skin, water, dust, and soil. The microbiome of the nasal cavity can also change in response to environmental factors such as geographic location, and hygiene (Rawis et al. Enterobacter aerogenes fermented the sugars but turned to … The negative oxidase result conflicts with M. luteus (Public Health England). [6], In 2003, it was proposed that one strain of Micrococcus luteus, ATCC 9341, be reclassified as Kocuria rhizophila.

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