scope of hydrology

scope of hydrology
October 28, 2020

Definition of hydrology: The study of water in all its forms (rain, snow and water on the earth’s surface), and from its origins to all its destinations on the earth is called hydrology. It is also commonly referred to as water resources engineering. During this period Leonardo da Vinci recognized the hydrological cycle as is accepted today. It is important for studying the on-site drainage and seepage condition before the commencement of any engineering construction. Mostly, engineering hydrology is focused on the scientific study of the … the occurrence, frequency and quantity of water that can be obtained from the basin.). These developments vastly contributed towards taking up of quantitative hydrologic studies. The seventeenth century saw development of techniques for measurements of rainfall, evaporation, river discharge etc., which provided documented proof of the principle of hydrological cycle. Among the earliest engineering operations of record is the construction of wells, frequently described in the Book of Genesis—an example of applied hydrology. Scope of Hydrology in Civil Engineering. Design flood computations for safety of hydraulic structures; v. Calculation of useful life and capacity of reservoirs. It is a very important branch of civil engineering as it is necessary for the construction of various types of water resource-related infrastructures. Content Guidelines 2. Engineering hydrology has been an important study for a very long time. For example, during the Mesopotamian civilization dams were constructed for protecting the Mesopotamian towns from the flood. It is important for studying the on-site drainage and seepage condition before the commencement of any engineering construction. Hydroelectric Power Generation Projects and Dam Constructions. Darcy’s law of groundwater flow, Dupit’s well formula, Hagen-Poiseuille’s equation of capillary flow, Francis weir discharge formula. Privacy Policy 8. Disaster Prevention or Flood Control Projects. (Some wells of extremely ancient and probably pre‐historic construction are still existent and in service in Arabia. For practical reasons hydrology does not cover all studies- of oceans and medical uses of water. It is a very important branch of civil engineering as it is necessary for the construction of various types of water resource-related infrastructures. 2. To name a few, Sherman gave unit hydrograph theory, Horton gave method of determining rainfall excess on the basis of infiltration theory, Gumbel proposed the use of extreme value distribution for frequency analysis, Einstein developed the bed-load function for use in the theoretical analysis of sedimentation problems. Although up to the end of 14th century hydrological concepts were only speculated many hydraulic structures were constructed. The main application areas in the field of civil engineering can be listed as follows: 2. iv. vii. It is necessary for determining the reservoir capacity to assure an adequate supply of water for domestic and other purposes. It facilitates engineers and hydrologists for establishing the relation between surface water of catchment and underground water resources. iii. It is not entirely a pure science because it has many practical applications and it utilizes knowledge of other sciences greatly. Overland Flow: It refers to the runoff that flows through the surface of the ground to a stream or river channel. 3. The study, analysis, forecast and mitigation of water-related disasters such as flood, drought etc. Rationalisation of hydrologic theory — 1930 to 1950, viii. Scope of Hydrology in India is quite broad and can be seen sector wise and region wise. Scoping and reconnaissance are the investigative processes aimed at determining which issues are to be addressed by the project. It is necessary for determining the maximum probable flood(Maximum flood level) at the proposed construction site. Numerous aqueducts were built by the Greeks and Romans. Studies focused on urban hydrological issues are included. Evapotranspiration: It is the combined process of evaporation and transpiration and involves the transfer of water to the atmosphere both from the water sources and vegetation. It covers water storage in the form of reservoir and flood protection. The hydrological cycle consists of a series of processes such as evaporation, precipitation, percolation, runoff etc. Multi-and interdisciplinary analyses of hydrological problems are within scope. In fact concept of hydrological cycle was professed by many philosophers from time immemorial. 6. The main components of the hydrological cycle can be listed as follows: 1. The modern science of hydrology may be considered to have begun with measurements of rainfall, evaporation, river discharge by area-velocity method etc. ii. From these measurements which started in 17th century scientists were able to draw correct conclusions on the observed hydrological phenomenon. Ground Water Development Study: Engineering hydrology facilitates the study of groundwater and its development. 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It is a continuous cycle. Operation of reservoirs can be done in an efficient manner. The engineering hydrology is mainly concerned with the following aspects: 1. For example, during the Mesopotamian civilization dams were constructed for protecting the Mesopotamian towns from the flood. Precipitation: It refers to the forms of water that fall from the atmosphere to the surface of the earth such as rain, drizzle, snow etc. Determination of Maximum Probable Flood: It is necessary to determine the frequency and occurrence of flood or maximum flood level before designing and building hydraulic structures such as dams, flood control structures and reservoirs. The cost of collecting sufficient hydrological data and its analysis constitutes an insignificant part of the total cost of the water resources development project but it ensures successful operation and life of the project and therefore becomes indispensible activity. These were naturally constructed on the basis of the practical knowledge of hydrology though it was not widely enunciated. The hydrological cycle may be defined as the process in which water from all the freshwater sources, oceans and land move to the atmosphere and back in the form of precipitation. Precisely, engineering hydrology may be defined as the multidisciplinary specialization of civil engineering that deals with the occurrence, circulation and distribution of water on Earth. It enables one to determine the flow over various hydraulic structures such as spillway, highway culvert, urban storm drainage system etc. He was an American civil engineer and soil scientist. Read this article to learn about the definition, scope, history and application of hydrology. The field, scope, and status of the science of hydrology - NASA/ADS Introduction—In some of its aspects hydrology is as old as its foster parents—geography and meteorology. Hydroelectric Power Generation Projects and Dam Constructions. The runoff represents surplus water that flows over the surface to join some river or sea. The development and advancement of engineering hydrology began in the first century( BC). Water resources account of a river basin can be prepared. Determination of Water Yield of Basin: For the design and construction of various structures such as municipal water tanks, reservoirs, inland navigation etc; it is necessary to determine the yield of basin i.e. It is inevitably necessary for the cycling and processing of solar energy, sediments and other elements that are necessary for sustaining life on Earth. The selection of coefficients and parameters to be used in empirical formulae had to depend upon experience and judgement. The hydrological cycle may be defined as the process in which water from all the freshwater sources, oceans and land move to the atmosphere and back in the form of precipitation. Analysis and estimation of the water resources of the earth (both overground and underground). Some of the importance of engineering hydrology can be listed as follows: 1. The main application areas in the field of civil engineering can be listed as follows: 2. In the above equation precipitation indicates total supply of water from all forms of falling moisture and mainly includes rainfall and snowfall. It facilitates engineers and hydrologists for establishing the relation between surface water and underground water resources. Irrigation activities were evident since the history of Chinese development. Image Guidelines 5.

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