tectonic forces

tectonic forces
October 28, 2020


Dissipation of heat from the mantleis acknowledged to be the original source of the energy required to drive plate tectonics through convection or large scale upwelling and doming. Scientists are a long way from being able to predict earthquakes. Since the rock cannot move, it cannot deform called. Explain geologic structures that lead to folding and faulting of the physical landscape. Using data from two seismographs, the two circles will intercept at two points. Earthquake-prone communities should always be prepared for an earthquake. Although useful for decades, this technique has been replaced by digital calculations. Near the river and surrounding floodplain, the water table is near the surface. Stress is the force applied to an object. Where an earthquake will occur is the easiest feature to predict. Only about 2,000 people died in the 1960 Great Chilean earthquake, the largest earthquake ever recorded. When forces are parallel but moving in opposite directions, the stress is called shear. Folklore tells of animals behaving erratically just before an earthquake. What if the stress applied is sharp rather than gradual? About 80% of all earthquakes strike around the Pacific Ocean basin because it is lined with convergent and transform boundaries. Builders zigzag pipes so that they bend and flex when the ground shakes. This is also an uncertain predictor of large earthquakes. When an earthquake will occur is much more difficult to predict. Water levels in wells fluctuate as water moves into or out of fractures before an earthquake. Also the shear weight of the reservoir’s water can weaken the bedrock causing it to fracture. Fractures can be either joints or faults. However, many earthquakes do not have foreshocks and small earthquakes are not necessarily followed by a large earthquake. Stress applied over time often leads to plastic def. If a water reservoir is built on top of an active fault line, the water may actually lubricate the fault and weaken the stress built up within it. Small quakes, called foreshocks, sometimes occur a few seconds to a few weeks before a major quake. A good prediction must be accurate as to where an earthquake will occur, when it will occur, and at what magnitude it will be so that people can evacuate. At the time few people lived in the area. Seismologists use seismic waves to learn about earthquakes and also to learn about the Earth’s interior. Magnitude 9 earthquakes are rare. Scientists know that earthquakes take place at plate boundaries and tend to happen where they’ve occurred before. The rocks then have three possible responses to increasing stress: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, or fracturing. When stress causes a material to change shape, it has undergone strain or deformation. In San Francisco, water and gas pipelines are separated by valves so that areas can be isolated if one segment breaks.

Ground tilting, caused by the buildup of stress in the rocks, may precede a large earthquake, but not always.

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