They were given a large army, and were able to defeat the slaves, putting down the rebellion with shocking brutality. One of their leading statesmen, Porcius Cato, apparently began to end all his speeches in the senate with the words, “Carthago delendo est” (“Carthage must be destroyed”). These were also the years in which Marcus Tullius Cicero, the great orator, made his mark; he was consul in the year 63 BC, during which he defeated an attempt, called the Cataline conspiracy, by a group of impoverished nobles to carry out a coup. The Romans settled their own citizens on the land that had belonged to the enemy. In central Italy there is a plain on the west coast called Latium , which takes its name from the Latin people who lived there in the first millennium BC. The Romans beat off these attacks, but from now on they were continually at war with their neighbours – Latin, Sabine, Volscian and Etruscan. Their combined influence and wealth created an unstoppable political force, and they all got what they wanted from it. Caesar’s former lieutenants, Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) and C. Octavianus (Octavian, Caesar’s grand nephew and adopted son), and Aemilius Lepidus, formed the Second Triumvirate (this time a formal one, with the specified aim of “Settling the Constitution”), and carried out a widespread purge of thousands of senators and knights in Rome and throughout Italy, distributing the confiscated lands amongst their followers. However, his time was short. A Carthaginian army under Hannibal’s brother Habsdrubal, which repeated Hannibal’s feat by marching over the Alps into northern Italy, was brought to battle and soundly defeated.
This problem became apparent with the war against the Numidian king, Jugurtha (112-106), and against the Germans (112-101). Finally, a widespread revolt against the Roman-sponsored regimes in Macedonia and Greece resulted in the destruction of the historic city of Corinth and the establishment of permanent Roman rule in the region (146).eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'timemaps_com-leader-1','ezslot_13',124,'0','0'])); Carthage had ended the Second Punic War with her overseas territories stripped from her, and having to pay a massive indemnity to Rome for the following 50 years. In the half century following the war, the Carthaginians focussed on trade, and, despite the indemnity, were soon thriving again. Theodosius was the last emperor who ruled over the whole empire. Given that Roman leading generals were also leading politicians in the senate, this situation was bound to get entangled with the faction-ridden politics in Rome. This ascendency of Christianity was accelerated by Roman philosophy, institutions and, above all, by the Roman emperors, particularly Constantine. He already had the title imperator (a title given previously to victorious generals, and which enabled him and his successors to wear the distinctive purple toga worn by such men in their triumphs). His strategy was to raise the people of Italy against their Roman masters, and thus destroy Rome’s power.
In 476, after being refused lands in Italy, Orestes’ Germanic mercenaries, under the leadership of the chieftain Odoacer, captured and executed Orestes and took Ravenna, the Western Roman capital at the time, deposing Western Emperor Romulus Augustus. From this time forward, the leading Plebeian families gradually merged with those of the Patricians to form a single ruling class of Rome, and the tension between the Patrician and Plebeian orders faded (though it by no means vanished). Caesar followed with his army, and defeated Pompey at the battle of Pharsalus (48). When Lepidus proved restive at his small share, Octavian crushed him and stripped him even of that. Although this was a gradual process, still incomplete when Italy came under the rule of barbarian chieftains in the last quarter of the 5th century, it deepened further afterward, and had lasting consequences for the medieval history of Europe. A powerful raiding party of Gauls, coming down the Italian peninsula from northern Italy, defeated the Roman army and burnt the city, narrowly failing to take the Citadel and destroy the city altogether (c. 390 BC). Unlike in many Greek states, however, the Plebeians did not call for a re-distribution of land, nor did they violently attack the Patricians and try to seize power. History of the ancient Middle East, showing the role the Roman empire played in that region. The decline of the smallholder in the Italian countryside had another profound effect on the Roman state. From his successor Tiberius’ time, however, the Praetorian Guard were housed in its own huge barracks just outside the walls of Rome. Later renamed Constantinople, and protected by formidable walls in the late 4th and early 5th centuries, it was to become the largest and most powerful city of Christian Europe in the Early Middle Ages. The inevitable war broke out with Rome again in 218 BC, and Hannibal led his army on one of the most audacious marches in history, over the high Alps (elephants and all – or to begin with, at any rate; there weren’t any left by the end) and down into the broad Po plains of Northern Italy. But how was he to ensure stability in the Roman world? important Roman from the 2nd century BC. These rich plebeians used the massed power of their poorer fellows not only to guarantee the rights of the Plebeians, but also to gain access to high office for themselves. Again Roman forces withdrew. Holding the consulship for five years in a row (105-101; he had also been consul in 107), Marious brought in a series of reforms which transformed the Roman army. They also won seats in the senate, the ruling council of Rome; and finally, they won the right to be elected consul, or chief magistrate of Rome (two of these being elected each year to act as joint chiefs of state). The Latin-speaking west, under dreadful demographic crisis, and the wealthier Greek-speaking east, also began to diverge politically and culturally. The Romans were suddenly confronted with the main Carthaginian army in their own backyard. Pompey then fled to Egypt where he was assassinated on the orders of Ptolemy, king of Egypt.
His senatorial opponents were implacable, and he was assassinated by a group of them in 44 BC. As we have seen, her new allies in the fertile coastal plain of Campania had been coming under pressure from the hill tribes of the interior, the Samnites and their allies. Rome was now able to call on a large pool of military manpower, which she was to need over the next few decades. The middle years of the first century BC were dominated by the careers of two powerful generals, Pompey the Great and Julius Caesar. Several more years of bloody fighting in Africa and Spain were needed to overcome up opposition to his rule, but by 45 BC Caesar was in complete control of the Roman state, like Sulla taking the office of dictator. Pompey was appointed to the command against them, along with another rising politician, Licinius Crassus (who in fact bore the brunt of the campaigning). This article takes the story of Rome from the foundation of the city of Rome in the 8th century BCE right up to the reign of the first emperor, Augustus, in the first century BCE. The assassins of Caesar fled to Greece (43 BC), where they set about raising an army.
As chance would have it, this family produced a commander whom historians have ever since regarded as one of the greatest generals in history.
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